Wie kam es zum Erfolg in Irland? McElvaney berichtet in N Engl J Med 350, 22 (2004), 2231-33, dass sich eine Gruppe von irischen Parlamentariern aller Parteien zu Tabak und Gesundheit beraten ließ und daraufhin 1999 eine Revision der Nichtraucherstrategie empfahl und ein Büro für Tabakkontrolle gründete. 2001 wurde in einem Tabakgesetz die Kompetenz zur Schaffung rauchfreier Arbeitsplätze dem Minister für Gesundheit und Kinder übertragen. 2002 schrieb das Büro für Tabakkontrolle gemeinsam mit der Gesundheits- und Sicherheitsbehörde einen Bericht über die Folgen des Passivrauchens, der den Minister bei seiner Veröffentlichung im Jänner 2003 zur Ankündigung einer Gesetzesnovelle veranlasste. Trotz Unterstützung durch alle Parteien rief die Ankündigung eines Rauchverbotes in allen Arbeitsräumen (einschließlich Bars) eine heftige Opposition auf den Plan, die vom Gastgewerbe angeführt wurde und die bekannten Argumente der Tabakindustrie (Beeinträchtigung von persönlicher Freiheit, Fremdenverkehr und Sozialleben sowie Nichtdurchsetzbarkeit) verwendete. Aber Gesundheitsbehörden und NGOs (Action on Smoking and Health, Krebshilfe, Herzfonds) ließen sich davon nicht beeindrucken und Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände unterstützten den Minister, der sich in New York davon überzeugte, dass nach einem Rauchverbot die Prophezeiungen der Gegner nicht eingetroffen waren. So konnte die Opposition nur mehr wenige Ausnahmen erreichen (mit Wohnräumen legistisch gleichzusetzende Hotelzimmer, Gefängniszellen, Pflegeheimzimmer). Es gab praktisch keine Probleme mit der Durchsetzung des Gesetzes, das laut Office of Tobacco Control ab dem 29.3.2004 in 97% der Arbeitsräume und 96% der Gaststätten eingehalten wurde. Gegner behaupten zwar, dass die irische Polizei erst im nasskalten Winter mit randalierenden Rauchern zu tun bekommen wird, aber nach den Erfahrungen von New York ist eher damit zu rechnen, dass sich viele Raucher entschließen werden, das Rauchen aufzugeben. Letzteres ist der Hauptgrund weshalb die in Österreich und anderen Ländern vom Tabakkartell gelenkte Opposition gegen solche -für Raucher und Nichtraucher gleichermaßen- segensreichen Gesetze noch so stark ist.

Konferenzteilnehmer aus ganz Europa konnten sich im Juni 04  vom Erfolg der irischen Gesetze überzeugen. Wir hoffen, dass auch die vom österreichischen Gesundheitsministerium entsandten Beamten mithelfen werden, die Empfehlungen der internationalen Konferenz in Österreich umzusetzen.

Erfolge:
Abnahme des Passiv- und Aktivrauchens:  Irish Times September 27, 2004 (Fiona Tyrrell)

New figures, which indicate that thousands of smokers have either quit or
cut down, have been described as heartening by the Minister for Health and
Children, Mr Martin.

Quitting smoking is the "single most important thing a smoker can do for
their health", according to Mr Martin at the publication of a survey carried
out for the National Smokers' Quitline yesterday. It shows that almost 7,000
smokers who have contacted the national smoking quit line have stopped
smoking, and 10,000 have reduced their cigarette consumption.

Almost four out of 10 people who have stopped said the new smoking ban had a
significant or important bearing on their decision to quit, and over half
said it was an important aspect in terms of staying off cigarettes.

Some 19,800 people have called the National Smokers' Quitline between last
October and April 2004. Some 33 per cent of those have quit, according to
the survey, which was conducted in July and August.

The help line was set up just under a year ago as part of the National
Smoking Cessation campaign.

Over 9,500 have quit for an average of 7.4 weeks, but have since relapsed.
For those who have quit, the average of being off cigarettes is around 21
weeks.

The survey also found that the majority of callers to the help line had
attempted to quit on at least one other occasion, and more than one in six
had been smoking for more than 15 years. Of those who smoke, 84 per cent
smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day.

Of those who have not managed to quit, 59 per cent are still "thinking about
it" and 34 per cent plan to quit in the next six months.



Additional link: Workplace ban �drove smokers to quit� - The Examiner
http://www.irishexaminer.com/[...]y/did-sg5itYTJHa-ZEs g7IQHSmeYhNE.asp

Der Weg zum Erfolg:
BBC News ( March 29, 2004) quotes of Dr. Fenton Howell, a public health specialist,
spokesman for Action on Smoking and Health Ireland and member of ENSP:
"The move was primarily a health and safety issue, freeing people from having to work in a smoky environment.

The evidence in favour of a ban was 'incontrovertible', because of studies showing the dangers of passive smoking.
There have been no major problems where bans have been brought in because in most places,
most people don't smoke and most smokers actually want to quit.

We have a duty to protect people in law, if nothing else to give them a safe workplace."


Europe 'Set to Follow Ireland's Smoking Ban' - Scotsman, March 29, 2004
By Kieran McDaid and Victoria Ward, PA News:
Countries across Europe are likely to follow Ireland�s lead in imposing a
smoking ban in workplaces, it was claimed tonight. As the Irish Republic
became the first nation in the world to ban smoking at work, health minister
Micheal Martin insisted the health of thousands would be improved. Calls
for corresponding measures in Northern Ireland and in Britain gathered pace
as Mr Martin claimed many other European countries were now considering
implementing bans. �There is significant momentum building across Europe,�
he said.
Norway is expected to introduce a smoking ban this summer, while a number of
other Scandinavian countries are likely to follow suit. A spokesman for the
Irish Department of Health claimed officials from other EU countries would
be watching the implementation of the ban very closely. �There is huge
interest from the international media and it�s fair to say other countries
will be keeping a close eye on how the ban works here,� he added.
Mr Martin claimed the introduction of the smoking ban marked Ireland out as
a forward-thinking, modern society. �Ireland has transformed itself in many
ways over the last decade, not least in becoming one of the leading
economies in the world,� he said. �In the context of the transition to the
euro currency, for example, handled within 24 hours without any great
difficulty, the Irish people had no difficulty in adapting. �Plastic bags
levy � people had no difficulty in adapting. �I think Irish people have
demonstrated their capacity to change and to adapt.�
Mr Martin said the smoking ban would have a massive positive effect on
people�s health. �We are top of the European league table in terms of heart
disease,� he said. �I want to get off that position, it�s one league table
we don�t want to be topping and one of the most effective ways to do that is
to challenge the tobacco issue. �It�s a no-brainer, it�s a clear public
health instrument we can use to reduce the levels of heart disease and
cancer in our country and that�s why we�re doing it in Ireland.�
Mr Martin said he understood many publicans were worried about a possible
loss of business, but he said there was no research to suggest the new law
would have a negative impact on the hospitality trade. He said the vast
majority of Irish people supported the introduction of the ban. �I get a
sense that this is a decision and an initiative whose time had come and that
people are in a position to respond,� he said.
�The general sense I am getting from ordinary people is that they can�t wait
for it to happen. I understand the deep anxieties many publicans have �
after all, it is their livelihoods at the coalface � but I have met a lot of
people who will actually go back to pubs because of the fact that they will
be smoke-free. �I�ve been to California, I�ve been to New York and life has
gone on, the world has not collapsed.�
Although pubs and restaurants have received the lion�s share of the
attention, it is important to realise that up to 200,000 workplaces will now
be smoke-free, he said. �We are talking about places like universities and
hospitals, where thousands of people spend the majority of their day, so the
impact is quite huge. �In other jurisdictions they have achieved up to 94%
compliance and we�ll be aiming at the same targets in this country,� he
said.
Anti-smoking lobby groups hailed the introduction of the ban as a great day
for health in Ireland. Maureen Mulvihill, health promotion manager for the
Irish Heart Foundation, said: �Employees and, indeed, patrons in our bars,
restaurants and hotels will benefit from this ground-breaking health
initiative and lives will be saved. �It may take some adjustments
initially, as it did in cinemas and on aircraft, but we can make it work in
the wider interests of public health.�
Professor Luke Clancy, chairman of ASH Ireland, said Irish and international
customers could now enjoy visiting pubs and restaurants without breathing in
cancer-causing chemicals. He said: �The introduction of the workplace
smoking legislation is groundbreaking in terms of its contribution to the
health of the nation. �Workers around the country � 78% of whom do not
smoke � can enjoy a smoke-free and a much safer workplace.�
The Irish Cancer Society said because 34% of all smokers were aged between
18-34, the ban in pubs and clubs would be the most contentious. Chief
executive John McCormack said: �The introduction of the ban in these
workplaces is a vital preventative measure for young people starting to
smoke, in addition, of course, to providing protection for employees.�
Prison cells, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes are exempt from the
ban, but all workplaces � including film sets, company cars and cafes �
became smoke-free today. A complaints hotline has been set up by the Office
for Tobacco Control for customers to report anyone they see flouting the
law. Fines of up to 3,000 euro (Ł2,400) will be issued to anyone caught
smoking illegally by the 340 health inspectors policing the ban.
http://news.scotsman.com/[...]/latest.cfm?id'14093