Costs, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness ratios (95% confidence intervals) of interventions to reduce use of tobacco for three WHO subregions (DALY=disability-adjusted life year). Source: Shibuya et al.: WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: development of an evidence based global public health treaty. BMJ 2003;327:154-157 doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7407.154

Total cost ($m/year)* Total effect (million DALYs/year) Average cost effectiveness ratio ($/DALY)
Intervention Region of Americas B European region A South East Asia region D§ Region of Americas B European region A South East Asia region D § Region of Americas B European region A South East Asia region D§
G1: Global average tax rate (44%) 32 (27 to 42) 88 (74 to 110) 132 (121 to 156) 0.8 (0.6 to 0.9) 2.0 (1.8 to 2.3) 3.2 (2.7 to 3.7) 42 (33 to 57) 44 (35 to 57) 41 (35 to 53)
G2: Highest regional tax rate (75%) 32 (27 to 42) 88 (74 to 111) 132 (121 to 156) 1.7 (1.4 to 2.0) 4.8 (4.2 to 5.4) 7.3 (6.1 to 8.5) 19 (15 to 25) 18 (15 to 24) 18 (15 to 23)
G3: Doubling the highest tax 32 (27 to 42) 88 (74 to 110) 132 (121 to 156) 2.3 (2.0 to 2.7) 6.9 (6.0 to 7.7) 9.3 (7.8 to 10.8) 14 (11 to 19) 13 (10 to 17) 14 (12 to 18)
G4: Clean indoor air law enforcement 120 (100 to 165) 275 (209 to 368) 395 (295 to 522) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.1) 0.8 (0.6 to 0.9) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 972 (761 to 1425) 358 (263 to 503) 727 (508 to 1099)
G5: Comprehensive advertisement ban 48 (40 to 65) 110 (83 to 146) 151 (124 to 178) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.02) 0.6 (0.5 to 0.7) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 248 (194 to 361) 189 (140 to 266) 279 (207 to 385)
G6: Information dissemination 101 (84 to 138) 235 (178 to 315) 328 (244 to 411) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) 436 (343 to 632) 337 (248 to 479) 504 (349 to 722)
P1: Nicotine replacement therapy 714 (594 to 979) 1505 (1139 to 2013) 1724 (1171 to 2280) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) 0.7 (0.5 to 0.8) 3083 (2423 to 4520) 2164 (1604 to 3024) 2652 (1708 to 3962)
G3+G5 80 (64 to 107) 198 (158 to 256) 283 (234 to 333) 2.5 (2.0 to 2.9) 7.2 (6.1 to 8.2) 9.3 (7.4 to 11.1) 32 (24 to 47) 28 (34 to 61) 31 (23 to 40)
G3+G6 133 (105 to 176) 323 (258 to 418) 460 (380 to 540) 2.5 (2.1 to 3.0) 7.2 (6.2 to 8.3) 9.3 (7.4 to 11.1) 53 (40 to 75) 45 (61 to 108) 50 (38 to 65)
G3+G4+G5 200 (159 to 266) 473 (378 to 612) 678 (560 to 795) 2.6 (2.1 to 3.1) 7.5 (6.4 to 8.7) 9.5 (7.4 to 11.1) 78 (59 to 111) 63 (44 to 78) 73 (56 to 96)
G3+G4+G6 253 (202 to 336) 599 (477 to 775) 854 (706 to 1004) 2.6 (2.1 to 3.1) 7.6 (6.5 to 8.7) 9.3 (7.5 to 11.1) 97 (73 to 140) 79 (21 to 37) 92 (71 to 120)
G3+G5+G6 181 (143 to 239) 433 (346 to 562) 611 (504 to 718) 2.7 (2.2 to 3.2) 7.5 (6.4 to 8.6) 9.4 (7.4 to 11.1) 68 (51 to 97) 58 (49 to 85) 66 (51 to 87)
G3+G4+G5+G6 301 (240 to 403) 708 (564 to 917) 1006 (830 to 1181) 2.7 (2.2 to 3.3) 7.8 (6.7 to 9.0) 9.5 (7.5 to 11.1) 110 (83 to 157) 90 (70 to 123) 109 (83 to 142)
G3+G4+G5+G6+P1 1015 (803 to 1355) 2213 (1756 to 2867) 2730 (2143 to 3312) 2.9 (2.4 to 3.5) 8.1 (6.9 to 9.03) 9.7 (7.5 to 11.1) 348 (261 to 497) 274 (211 to 372) 295 (218 to 394)