Dear Professor Neuberger,
Your letter was forwarded to me by János, because I’m one
of the psychiatrists who held a lecture in the section about the link
between smoking and psychiatric disorders.
To your request I provide a list of relevant recent articles (with
different methodologies) about the association between depression
(and/or suicide) and smoking. The majority of them suggest that smoking
- even in the form of environmental smoke exposition - is an
independent risk factor for depression and suicide as well, and smoking
cessation – in contrast to the public opinion – is
associated with a decreased risk (or at least not an increased risk) of
depression in the long run.
Legleye S, Beck F, Peretti-Watel P, Chau N, Firdion JM. Suicidal
ideation among young French adults: association with occupation,
family, sexual activity, personal background and drug use. J Affect
Kang E, Lee J. A longitudinal study on the causal association between
smoking and depression. J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43:193-204.
Clarke DE, Eaton WW, Petronis KR, Ko JY, Chatterjee A, Anthony JC.
Increased risk of suicidal ideation in smokers and former smokers
compared to never smokers: evidence from the Baltimore ECA follow-up
study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010;40:307-18.
Juan W, Xiao-Juan D, Jia-Ji W, Xin-Wang W, Liang X. The associations
between health risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and attempts in an
urban Chinese sample of adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2010;126:180-7.
Pedersen W, von Soest T. Smoking, nicotine dependence and mental health
among young adults: a 13-year population-based longitudinal study.
Flensborg-Madsen T, Bay von Scholten M, Flachs EM, Mortensen EL,
Prescott E, Tolstrup JS. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for
depression. A 26-year population-based follow-up study. J Psychiatr
Res. 2010 Jul 12.
Torres LD, Barrera AZ, Delucchi K, Penilla C, Pérez-Stable EJ,
Mueoz RF. Quitting smoking does not increase the risk of major
depressive episodes among users of Internet smoking cessation
interventions. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 441-449.
Hamer M, Stamatakis E, Batty GD. Objectively assessed secondhand smoke
exposure and mental health in adults: cross-sectional and prospective
evidence from the Scottish Health Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67:
McClave AK, Dube SR, Strine TW, Kroenke K, Caraballo RS, Mokdad AH.
Associations between smoking cessation and anxiety and depression among
U.S. adults. Addict Behav 2009; 34: 491-497.
Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, Ng F, Henry MJ, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz
MA, Berk M. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive
disorder: population-based study. Br J Psychiatry. 2008
I also attach my recent review
about smoking and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article there are
two chapters which can be interesting for you: one of them
recapitulates the results about the association between suicide and
smoking, and the other one deals with the association between smoking